VI. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR OF 1750'S
THE BEGINNINGS OF INDEPENDENCE IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR-and Fort McCord, Pennsylvania
The Swedes in 1643 made Tinicum Island, near Philadelphia the first permanent settlement in what is now Pennsylvania. In 1643 Dutch troops took the area over and held it until 1664 when the English captured it.
In 1681 the King of England granted the region of Pennsylvania to William Penn in payment of a debt owed to William Penn's father. William Penn came there in 1682 as its Governor. He wrote its constitution which called for an elected legislature. Penn died in 1718 and his family governed the region until the Revolutionary War.
David McCord of Derry (now Hershey) Pennsylvania and William McCord of Ft. McCord near Chambersburg both held original land patents for their lands granted by the sons of William Penn in the early 1750's.
In the French and Indian War of the 1750's, when Benjamin Franklin saw the imminent dangers on the American frontier after British General Braddock's 1755 defeat near present-day Pittsburgh, Franklin over much legislative resistance pushed through the Pennsylvania Colonial legislature funds to support the building and arming of a line of frontier forts to defend Pennsylvania against the French and Indians.
Ben Franklin commanded the Philadelphia militia as its Colonel Commander in this first armed effort to defend against the French and their Indian allies.
Benjamin Franklin was a remarkable man. He was a statesman, inventor, writer, and made invaluable contributions to the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He was primarily responsible for influencing France into supporting George Washington and his Army fighting England. He believed in a strong defense for the nation and, at the time of the American Revolution in 1776, in a strong offense against the British.
COLONEL BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BUILDING PENNSYLVANIA FORT
Colonel Benjamin Franklin personally built one of the forts in Northeastern Pennsylvania as part of this line of forts to defend Eastern Pennsylvania in the 1750's..
Ft. McCord Monument near Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
(photo courtesy of Douglas McCord)
Ft. McCord was built by William McCord and his brothers in 1756 as part of this line of frontier Pennsylvania forts. It is well-known and memorialized in Pennsylvania history where 26 people lost their lives or were captured on April 1, 1756 in an attack by the Indians backed by the French. Its history is a poignant one.
Female members of the William McCord family who had been captured at Ft. McCord on April 1, 1756 were recaptured in a daring rescue in September 1756 at Kittanning, near present-day Pittsburgh.
They were rescued by frontier militia rangers headed by the famous Colonel John Armstrong, who later became one of Pennsylvania's two Major Generals in the American Revolution. Colonel Armstrong's brother had been murdered by the Indians he found at Kittanning.
For the daring rescue of these prisoners at Kittanning, the Penn family and the Colonial government of Pennsylvania struck not one but two medals in Colonel John Armstrong's honor.
24 MAY 1753 LAND PATENT WARRANT FROM THE PENNSYLVANIA PROPRIETORS (PENN FAMILY) TO WILLIAM MCCORD IN LANCASTER COUNTY LATER CUMBERLAND COUNTY,PENNSYLVANIA. LAND ON WHICH FT. MCCORD WAS BUILT. JOHN ARMSTRONG SIGNED AS THE COUNTY OFFICIAL
1802 Painting of John Armstrong Jr, son of Colonel John Armstrong
Two McCords, John and William, served in the frontier Pennsylvania militia companies under Colonel John Armstrong and his brother, Captain Joseph Armstrong, who headed their company near Chambersburg.
Colonel John Armstrong was a close friend of George Washington who headed the Virginia militia during the French and Indian War, and Armstrong was later a business partner of Washington's.
When the American forces took Ft. Duquesne in the Forbes Campaign in the 1758, and in its place built Ft. Pitt, Colonel John Armstrong was the man who personally planted their flag over Ft. Duquesne. The French seeing the Pennsylvania frontier forces under Armstrong and Scottish regiments approaching had fled in defeat thus closing the French and Indian War in America. The French sued for peace thereafter, giving up all their territory in America.
John Armstrong was one of the first to recommend George Washington to be our nation's first President in 1789, doing so in a letter to Washington handed down to us today.
Four children of David McCord's family were also captured two years later in 1758 at present-day Hershey (then known as Derry) Pennsylvania by the French and Indians. One, James McCord, was taken to Fort Detroit and into Canada where he was put aboard a French ship and transported to Plymouth, England where he and others were exchanged for French prisoners.
FORT DETROIT 1794 PAINTING BY A BRITISH OFFICER
James McCord and his brother David were later to serve under the colorful Colonel John Sevier in his militia companies from 1777-1783 on the-then Far West frontier in what is now Washington County, Tennessee, then in North Carolina.
Colonel Sevier was one of the heroic leaders of militia troops who successfully defeated the British at Kings Mountain, South Carolina in 1780, one of three major American victories in the South during the American Revolution. Colonel Sevier was to later become Tennessee's first Governor is the 1790's when it became a state.
(A major patriot success in the South by American forces during the American Revolution was at Cowpens, South Carolina which was a brilliant victory for patriot forces under frontier leader Brigadier General Daniel Morgan of Virginia.)
1763 PONTIAC WAR SKETCH
In 1763 another McCord fort, one belonging to George McCord in what is now Perry County, Pennsylvania, was attacked by Indians during the Pontiac War and George McCord and some of his family killed. Colonel John Armstrong had gone to the fort with men to assist George McCord but they were outnumbered by the Indians and some of Armstrong's men were also killed there.
(courtesy Pennsylvania Historical Commission)
SKETCH OF THE BATTLE OF BUSHY RUN, 26 MILES FROM FT. PITT IN AUGUST 1763 BY FRONTIER MILITIA AND SCOTCH TROOPS UNDER SWISS COLONEL HENRY BOUQUET
McCord children were among 40 women and children rescued at The Battle of Bushy Run Pennsylvania by Captain Charles Lewis of the Virginia Militia and among 200 at the Forks of the Muskingum in Ohio in 1763-64 by Colonel Henry Bouquet's forces in the final American victory of the French and Indian War.
At the Battle of Bushy Run, Bouquet had with him Frontier Rangers and other volunteers, and the 42 Regiment, or Royal Highlanders, the 60th Regiment, or Royal Americans, and the 77th Regiment, or Montgomery's Highlanders as his fighters.
The map of travel of thee men which had assembled at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, reflects that their route of travel came near Ft. McCord enroute to Fort Loudon from Shippensburg and then on toward Ft. Pitt.
Bouquet's men were attacked at Bushy Run shortly before reaching Ft. Pitt and a pitched battle occurred in which Bouquet was ultimately successful. Bouquet then took his men to Ft. Pitt and went the next year, 1764, from there into the Ohio country to recapture some 200 white prisoners, women and children.
The Indians had in 1763 killed or captured over 2000 settlers in a period of four months and over 1500 settlers homes had to be abandoned.
Colonel John Armstrong, commander of the Provincial troops west of the Susquehanna River, reported 48 or 49 inhabitants killed east of the Allegheny Hills and Colonel Bouquet believed that in a very short time some 600 other persons had been killed.
The Battle of Bushy Run was "a major battle--a decisive battle--in quelling the 1763 Indian uprising" which was brutal in its attacks against the settlers.
Swiss Colonel Henry Bouquet, commanding British forces
The McCords, captives from Derry and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania were rescued rescued from the Indians near Ft. Pitt at Bushy Run and were taken to Ft. Pitt. Others were rescued in far-off Ohio , including Mary McCord and three Lowry girls.
They were rescued by this famous Swiss, Colonel Henry Bouquet--who successfully won the Pontiac War in 1763, was victorious in The Battle of Bushy Run,, Pennsylvania, and who had earlier defeated the French and Indians elsewhere in Pennsylvania--and by Captain Charles Lewis of the Virginia Frontier Militia. The Virginia militia forces during most of the French and Indian War were commanded by Colonel George Washington and served with British troops under Colonel Bouquet.
Brigadier General John Forbes
Earlier Pennsylvania forces in 1758 under Colonel John Armstrong and Virginia militia forces under Colonel George Washington had joined with troops of British General John Forbes to take Ft. Duquesne in western Pennsylvania in 1758.
Washington had assembled with them and Maryland government representatives first at Maidstone, Virginia to plan the campaign. Maidstone was just a few miles from Ft. McCord on the Potomac River.
Colonel John Armstrong had raised the successful flag at Ft. Duquesne when his forces lead the way.
The acquisition of Ft. Duquesne has been described as the most strategic capture in the French and Indian War.
Painting of Baltimore, Maryland in 1752
A VERY IMPORTANT MAP ABOUT THE MCCORD CAPTIVES RESCUED IN 1763-64 AND OTHER MCCORD FAMILIES
IN LOWER BLACK LINE, DANIEL BOONE'S TRAIL TO KENTUCKY IS SHOWN GOING THROUGH WATAUGA ASSOCIATION (WASHINGTON COUNTY), TENNESSEE WHERE JAMES AND DAVID MCCORD LIVED IN 1776-1799.
THE BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT OHIO IS SHOWN IN MIDDLE DARK LINE MARKED (COLONEL ANDREW) LEWIS 1774. BOTETOURT COUNTY, VIRGINIA WHERE JAMES AND DAVID MCCORD LIVED 1770-76 IS JUST OVER THE MOUNTAINS EAST OF CAMP UNION.
WHERE THE ORIGINAL MCCORD SETTLERS IN AMERICA LIVED
IN THE MAP BELOW NOTE THAT IN 1760 THERE WERE ONLY 1.6 MILLION PEOPLE IN AMERICA. ALSO NOTE THAT THE WESTERNMOST PART OF AMERICA WAS ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER OF PENNSYLVANIA AND OF VIRGINIA, BOTH OF WHICH IS WHERE MCCORDS LIVED AT THAT TIME. THEY WERE TRUE PIONEERS
FT. MCCORD, PENNSYLVANIA WAS LOCATED NEAR FT. LITTLETON AND FT. LOUDON.. THE FAMILY OF WILLIAM MCCORD LIVED AT FT. MCCORD. WILLIAM WAS SON OF ORIGINAL SETTLER (1720) WILLIAM MCCORD WHO DIED IN 1739 IN LANCASTER COUNTY.
THE FAMILY OF ORIGINAL SETTLER (1720) JAMES MCCORD LIVED AT YORK, PENNSYLVANIA LOCATED ON 'GREAT TRADING PATH' ACROSS SUSQUEHANNA RIVER FROM LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA SHOWN ON THE FIRST MAP ABOVE.
DERRY (PRESENT DAY HERSHEY) PENNSYLVANIA WAS LOCATED JUST A FEW MILES EAST OF HARRIS FERRY (HARRISBURG) ON TOP RED LINE ON THE FIRST MAP ABOVE. THE FAMILY OF ORIGINAL SETTLER (1720) DAVID MCCORD LIVED AT DERRY AND THE FAMILY OF ORIGINAL SETTLER (1720) JOHN MCCORD BORN 1702 LIVED NEARBY AT HANOVER, PENNSYLVANIA, WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY IN Lancaster COUNTY.
ORIGINAL SETTLERS (1738) JOHANNES AND ANDREW MCCORD LIVED IN VIRGINIA NEAR CHARLOTTESVILLE.
SOUTH CAROLINA 1720
ORIGINAL SETTLER (1720) BARNARD MCCORD LIVED AT CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA, NOT SHOWN ON THE MAPS ABOVE .
ORIGINAL SETTLER (1732) JAMES MCCORD LIVED AT WESTCHESTER, NEW YORK , NOT SHOWN ON THE MAPS ABOVE.
THE AREA OF AMERICA CLAIMED BY FRANCE BEFORE THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR AND UP TO 1763
LOCATION OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR IN PENNSYLVANIA 1754-63
NORTH AMERICA AFTER 1763 AND THE FRENCH DEFEAT IN AMERICA
DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
DURING THE 1760'S AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR YEARS OF THE 177O'S AND 1780'S, SEVERAL OTHER MCCORD FAMILIES--SONS AND GRANDSONS OF WILLIAM MCCORD OF FT. MCCORD AND DAVID MCCORD OF DERRY--LIVED IN LINCOLN AND MECKLENBURG COUNTIES, LOCATED IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA NEAR THE SOUTH CAROLINA LINE. (THESE COUNTIES NOT SHOWN ON MAPS).
EARLIER, IN THE 1760S', JOHN MCCORD, OLDEST SON OF WILLIAM MCCORD OF FT. MCCORD HAD ALSO LIVED IN BEDFORD COUNTY, VIRGINIA, LOCATED NEAR THE NORTH CAROLINA LINE.
JAMES AND DAVID MCCORD, SONS OF DAVID OF DERRY, PENNSYLVANIA, LIVED IN WASHINGTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE, THEN PART OF NORTH CAROLINA, DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR YEARS 1776 AND UNTIL 1799 FOR JAMES AND UNTIL 1789 FOR DAVID WHEN HE MOVED TO KENTUCKY.
SEVERAL MCCORDS LIVED IN STONY POINT, WESTCHESTER AND PEEKSKILL, NEW YORK DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, SUCH AS ANDREW MCCORD AND JAMES AND JOHN MCCORD AND THEIR SONS AND RELATIVES.
JOHN AND JAMES MCCORD AND OTHER MCCORDS LIVED IN SOUTH CAROLINA DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. BARNARD MCCORD THE FIRST SETTLER THERE HAD PROPERTY THERE IN 1720.
MANY OTHER MCCORDS LIVED IN PENNSYLVANIA AND ELSEWHERE DURING THE REVOLUTION.
OVER 100 MCCORDS SERVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION FROM A WIDE VARIETY OF STATES.